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Explore the Connections in the Natural World

Environmental Science Major

Division of Natural Sciences

When you major in environmental science, you’ll be part of a program that combines courses from the biology and chemistry departments. Your environmental science degree prepares you for immediate employment in the field or for graduate programs in areas such as environmental engineering, ecology and resource conservation.

You can also add an emphasis (area of focus) to add depth to the major. Choose from environmental chemistry, freshwater resources and wildlife biology.

Environmental Science Major

The bachelor of science degree in environmental science consists of 47-50 credits of courses in biology, chemistry and mathematics. The following courses are required (38 credits):

Introduction to the biological sciences covering biological chemistry celltissue structure and function genetics and microevolution. Intended for biology health and human sciences and environmental science majors. Three lectures and one lab per week. Corequisites
Real numbers exponents radicals and algebraic operations with polynomial and rational functions. Solving equations and graphing expressions involving polynomial and rational functions and exponential and logarithmic functions. Credit may not be received for both MATH 118 and 110. General education master core skill 2016 Summer Session I offered as an online course

Unit(s): 3
or
This course is designed to provide development of basic computational skills and introductory algebra concepts like solutions of single variable equations. It will also cover some introductory statistics and probability concepts. Problem solving will be emphasized. The course will contain at least one project that requires students to make extensive use of spreadsheet software like Excel. General Education Master Core Skill

Unit(s): 3
Biology and environmental science majors should take
Real numbers exponents radicals and algebraic operations with polynomial and rational functions. Solving equations and graphing expressions involving polynomial and rational functions and exponential and logarithmic functions. Credit may not be received for both MATH 118 and 110. General education master core skill 2016 Summer Session I offered as an online course

Unit(s): 3
. Other students should consult with their advisor about which course to take. General Education natural and physical sciences

Unit(s): 4

Introduction to the biological sciences covering macroevolution (systematic taxonomy phylogenetics) ecology and biodiversity. Intended for biology and environmental science majors. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites BIOL 110

Unit(s): 4

Analysis of the distribution and abundance of organisms population growth and regulation and species interactions as well as community and ecosystem processes. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites BIOL 111 and MATH 130 2016 Summer Session I Begins 5-23-16

Unit(s): 4

Principles of chemistry including stoichiometry states of matter atomic and molecular structure chemical bonding periodicity energy relationships and equilibria acid-base chemistry electrochemistry kinetics solubility thermodynamics kinetic molecular theory of gases and the systematic study of families of elements. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite MATH 110 MATH 115 or MATH 118 General Education natural and physical sciences Credit may not be received for both CHEM 125 and 161

Unit(s): 4

Principles of chemistry including stoichiometry states of matter atomic and molecular structure chemical bonding periodicity energy relationships and equilibria acid-base chemistry electrochemistry kinetics solubility thermodynamics kinetic molecular theory of gases and the systematic study of families of elements. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites CHEM 161 or permission of the instructor General Education natural and physical sciences Credit may not be received for both CHEM 125 and 161

Unit(s): 4

Differential and integral calculus for the student who needs a working knowledge of the subject but does not plan to pursue more advanced study in mathematics. Includes theory and application of limits derivatives and integrals. Prerequisite MATH 120 or satisfactory performance on placement test Credit may not be received for both MATH 130 and MATH 131

Unit(s): 3

-or-
Study of differential calculus of a single variable. Applications of the derivative are made to curve sketching max-min problems and linear approximation and IHopitals Rule. Also included are applications of the Intermediate Value Theorem and Mean Value Theorem. Credit may not be received for both MATH 130 and 131. Prerequisites MATH 120 or satisfactory performance on placement test

Unit(s): 3

Basic descriptive statistics probability hypothesis testing correlation and regression. Statistical computer software is used to analyze data. Prerequisites MATH 118 MATH 110 MATH 115 or satisfactory performance on placement test

Unit(s): 3

-or-
Introduction to fundamental statistical methods for biology students. Topics include descriptive statistics experimental design and hypothesis testing. Material includes basic parametric and non-parametric statistical methods preparing students to analyze experiments testing multiple factors and multiple treatment groups. Two lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites BIOL 111 and MATH 110 Alternate years offered 2016-2017 2016 Summer Session II offered as an online course

Unit(s): 3

ENVR-101
ENVR/
Exploration of basic biological chemical geological and physical processes at work on the earth its lifeforms and its natural resources. The extent of human impact and the need for global awareness are emphasized along with the need for application of rapidly expanding knowledge and technology toward solution of environmental problems. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites BIOL 110 and 111 or CHEM 161 and 162 or permission of instructor

Unit(s): 4

ENVR/CHEM-270
-or-
ENVR/
The chemistry and quantitative aspects of environmentally important cycles (C N O P S) in the context of the atmosphere hydrosphere and lithosphere. Major environmental issues will be discussed such as acid rain sewage treatment ozone destruction anthropogenic climate change air pollution and eutrophication. Laboratories will involve sampling quantitative detection and data analysis. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites CHEM 162 Credit may not be received for both CHEM-120 and ENVRCHEM-320

Unit(s): 4

The remaining 9-12 credits must come from three additional ENVR, BIOL, or CHEM courses numbered above 300 from the following list:

Explores the anatomy physiology ecology and behaviors that have produced an extraordinary biodiversity of bird species. The major groups of modern birds are introduced and their origin and ecology are examined. Students learn to recognize local species in the field and examine them in the lab using the ornithology collections. Suitable for both biology majors and non-majors. Prerequisites BIOL 100 or 110 Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

An introduction to the study of amphibians and reptiles. Lectures will focus on the origin and evolution of amphibians and reptiles and on their biology ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy anatomy species identification and common field techniques used to study these groups. Prerequisite BIOL 111 Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures will focus on phylogenetics the origin and evolution of mammals and their biology ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy species identification and common field techniques used to study mammals. Prerequisite BIOL 111 Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

Introduction to fundamental statistical methods for biology students. Topics include descriptive statistics experimental design and hypothesis testing. Material includes basic parametric and non-parametric statistical methods preparing students to analyze experiments testing multiple factors and multiple treatment groups. Two lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites BIOL 111 and MATH 110 Alternate years offered 2016-2017 2016 Summer Session II offered as an online course

Unit(s): 3

Survey of the vascular flora of the Shenandoah Valley and surrounding mountain areas. Field-based course that introduces students to the identification of plants in the field of their ecology. Plant collection and specimen preservation are also included. Prerequisites BIOL 111 2014 Summer Session I Begins 5-27-14

Unit(s): 4

A comprehensive survey of the plant kingdom that will include topics ranging from plant anatomy physiology diversity and ecology. Students interested in ecology forestry and wildlife biology will find this course particularly useful. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite BIOL 111 Alternate years offered 2016-2017

Unit(s): 4

BIOL/ENVR-360W
BIOL/
This primarily field-based course will provide a broad overview of techniques and concepts involved in field biology (especially ecology) including basic scientific method and a variety of sampling techniques. Course content also has a strong emphasis on basic natural history as students learn about and experience a wide variety of organisms (e.g. plant fungi insects fish amphibians and mammals) ecosystems (e.g. forests grasslands wetlands ponds and streams) and ecological interactions. Students will also discuss techniques for interpretingteaching these biological concepts to others. Prerequisites BIOL 111 or permission of instructor 2016 Summer Session I Begins 5-23-16 Hybrid Online Course Meets on Campus June 13-17 2016

Unit(s): 4

Broad survey of the diversity and classification of vascular plants. Students will learn to recognize common and important plant families as well as learn to identify local taxa. Traditional and modern methods of taxonomy and systematics are presented. Prerequisite BIOL 111 BIOL 430 recommended Alternate years offered 2016-2017

Unit(s): 4

Introduces the current and historical distributions of organisms in relation to all aspects of geography including climate altitude latitude soils etc. and how those distributions have changed over time. Combines information from physiology ecology and evolution. Field trips taken to illustrate local biogeographic patterns. Prerequistes BIOL 111 BIOL 350 recommended Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 3

Introduction to the theoretical framework and the methodology of animal behavior research. Students examine the causation development current function and evolutionary history of behavior of invertebrates and vertebrates. Integrates concepts and principles from multiple disciplines to understand behaviors such as foraging and predation mating systems communication parental care social hierarchies and territoriality. Students also review the history of the field of animal behavior and the contributions that animal behavior research can make to applied disciplines such as environmental conservation biomedical research and human psychology. Prerequisites Any one of the following BIOL 311 314 or 350 PSY 210 or permission of the instructor Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

This course will provide an overview of federal and state laws that are aimed at the conservation of natural resources andor protection of environmental quality. Major laws that will be covered include the National Environmental Protection Act Clean Air Act Clean Water Act the Endangered Species Act and others. Speakers from natural resourceenvironmental agencies such as the Va. Department of Environmental Quality Va. Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and U.S. Forest Service will provide practical insights into the application and implementation of environmental policy. Prerequisites BIOL 100 101 or 110 Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 3

This course will provide an overview of federal and state laws that are aimed at the conservation of natural resources andor protection of environmental quality. Major laws that will be covered include the National Environmental Protection Act Clean Air Act Clean Water Act the Endangered Species Act and others. Speakers from natural resourceenvironmental agencies such as the Va. Department of Environmental Quality Va. Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and U.S. Forest Service will provide practical insights into the application and implementation of environmental policy. Prerequisites BIOL 100 101 or 110 Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 3

ENVR/
Ecology and management of forest lands and their animal populations including principles and policy in support of diverse goals such as preservation of wilderness management for harvest parks and recreation and habitat recovery. Effects of geology soils water and climate on habitat quality and management implications. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites PDP 150 or 350 ENG 110 and BIOL 111 or permission of instructor Alternate years offered 2016-2017 General education Writing Intensive

Unit(s): 4

ENVR/
The chemistry and quantitative aspects of environmentally important cycles (C N O P S) in the context of the atmosphere hydrosphere and lithosphere. Major environmental issues will be discussed such as acid rain sewage treatment ozone destruction anthropogenic climate change air pollution and eutrophication. Laboratories will involve sampling quantitative detection and data analysis. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites CHEM 162 Credit may not be received for both CHEM-120 and ENVRCHEM-320

Unit(s): 4

ENVR-330
ENVR/
Exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics include antibiotic resistance biodegradation biodiversity biofuels bioremediation extreme environments geochemical cycles methods for sampling culture and analysis of environmental microorganisms microbiology of air water and soil environmental pathogens and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites BIOL 309 or ENVRCHEM 320 Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

ENVR/
Survey of the methods used by the public and private sectors to manage the environment and natural resources. Primary emphasis on restoration ecology and conservation biology. Other topics addressed include environmental engineering (e.g. green chemistry and design of pollution control devices) economic considerations in conservation (e.g. conservation land easements and ecotourism) and government regulation. The lab provides students with experience applying standard methods of monitoring biological resources. The lab also provides an opportunity for students to hear talks from environmental experts and to travel to local sites where management activities are occurring. Prerequisites BIOL 111 or permission of instructor Alternate years offered 2016-2017

Unit(s): 4

ENVR/
Survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics include taxonomy anatomy physiology behavior and ecology. Special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution habitat alteration overharvest and invasive species. Lab includes basic ecology and behavior but focuses heavily on common fisheries techniques. Prerequisites BIOLENVR 301 or BIOL 350 or permission of instructor Alternate years offered 2016-2017

Unit(s): 4

ENVR/
Introduction to aquatic ecosystems (lakes ponds streams and wetlands). Students learn about the major chemical and physical processes that determine the function of freshwater systems. Students are introduced to the major groups of aquatic organisms (algae vascular plants invertebrates fish and amphibians). Strong emphasis on the impacts that humans have on freshwater systems. The lab introduces the basic skills necessary for the study and management of fresh waters. Prerequisites BIOLENVR 301 or BIOL 350 or permission of instructor Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

A human geographic exploration of all world regions emphasizing population cultural economic and political geographies. Prerequisites HIST 110 and either ECON 200 or SOC 101 or permission of instructor

Unit(s): 3

Three credits may be used from ENVR 490, ENVR 491, or ENVR 499 as electives while Internship (480) cannot be used. Students wishing to double major in biolog y and environmental science or in chemistry and environmental science may not overlap or double count the electives selected in the environmental science plan of major to the other major.

Environmental Chemistry Emphasis

The environmental chemistry emphasis allows students majoring in environmental science or biology to pursue additional depth of preparation in a unique combination of courses. Students learn chemical techniques, analytics, sampling methods and instrumentation which are relevant to the understanding of environmental issues. Learning to find trace atmospheric, soil and water-borne constituents of either human or natural origin are critical to identifying potential pollutants in water, soil and the organic tissues of living organisms. This emphasis gives students distinctive training in chemical analysis of the environment.

Structure nomenclature reaction mechanismssynthesis and identification of organicmolecules. Three hours of lecture and onefour-hour lab per week.Prerequisite CHEM 162 or permissionof the instructorCredit cannot be earned for both CHEM250 and 305

Unit(s): 4

-and-
Structure nomenclature reaction mechanismssynthesis and identification of organicmolecules. Three hours of lecture and onefour-hour lab per week.Prerequisite CHEM 305

Unit(s): 4

-or-
A continuation of organic chemistry startedin CHEM 305 including a study of theinterpretation of infrared spectroscopy protonand carbon NMR UV-visible spectroscopy and massspectrometry. The lab will be an introduction tochemical research that includes research methodsand techniques through a series of experiments.Prerequisite CHEM 305Credit may not be received for both 306 and310 or for both CHEM-308 and CHEM-310

Unit(s): 5


ENVR/
The chemistry and quantitative aspects ofenvironmentally important cycles (C N O P S)in the context of the atmosphere hydrosphere andlithosphere. Major environmental issues arediscussed such as acid rain sewage treatmentozone destruction anthropogenic climate changeair pollution and eutrophication. Laboratoriesinvolve sampling quantitative detection and dataanalysis. Three hours of lecture and onefour-hour lab per week. Prerequisites CHEM-162

Unit(s): 4

This course is a study of the environment on theEarths surface the boundary between the solidand liquid and interactions between rock andwater. This will include weathering and theformation of soil and the flow of water at thesurface and below ground level. Lab activitieswill include sampling and analysis of soilsurface water and groundwater.Prerequisites ENVR-301

Unit(s): 3


Choose two:

Exposure to methods of quantitation signalto-noise enhancement instrumental design andfunction methods of spectroscopychromatographyelectroanalytical analysis and massspectrometry. Three hours of lecture and onefour-hour lab per week.Prerequisite CHEM 250 or 305Alternate years offered 2016-2017

Unit(s): 4

ENVR/
This course will provide a framework for studyinghow animals function in their native environmentsat different stages of their life cycles. Itsscope is animal physiology blended withenvironmental science principles ofphysiological mechanisms are examined from theperspective of physiological adaptation in agiven environmental context including specificadaptations to environmental extremes. Coursestructure active learning lectures and appliedlearning labs. Development of critical scientificthinking and scientific writing are significantcomponents of the course.Prerequisites
Taught in the style of a seminar a small groupof students learn thinking skills throughdiscussion debate peer review andbrainstorming. Context varies from section tosection. Incoming students rank topic preferencesand then are assigned to a section. Focusesspecifically on two key areas of personaldevelopment (1) intellectual growth isstimulated through systematic criticalquestioning and (2) a sense of communityinvolvement and responsibility is developedthrough classroom group work collaborativelearning and a class community engagementproject. The course also contains success skillexercises and college orientation informationincluding an introduction to the portfolioprogram.General education master core skills2017 Fall Semester TopicsPDP-150-01 A Mans Man and a Womans WomanPDP-150-02 The Power of Physical Activity andSportPDP-150-03 Human Behavior in a Computational AgePDP-150-04 Strange IdeasPDP-150-05 After the ScourgePDP-150-06 Swimming in a sea of misinformationPDP-150-07 A Mans Man and a Womans WomanPDP-150-08 Creativity in the Arts SciencesBusiness Sports... in LifePDP-150-09 How to Rock the BoatPDP-150-10 Superhero NarrativesPDP-150-11 Dog is My Co-PilotPDP-150-12 Leadership and the Art of DecisionPDP-150-13 Free PlayPDP-150-14 Knowledge The Only FrontierPDP-150-15 Music Sweet Music PDP-150-16 The Fine Line between Glory & GuiltPDP-150-17 The Souls of Black Folk CriticalReadings By and About African Americans in the20th and 21st CenturiesPDP-150-18 Whos Sorry Now Thinking ThroughApologies Made on the Public StagePDP-150-19 Chickens Chickens ChickensPDP-150-20 The Narnian The Life and Imaginationof C.S. LewisPDP-150-21 Liberal Arts of the Living DeadPDP-150-22 Liberal Arts of the Living DeadPDP-150-23 Human Behavior in a Computational AgePDP-150-24 Latino USAPDP-150-25 Tweet Friend Pin Social Media &You as a 21st Century CitizenPDP-150-26 The Power of Physical Activity andSportPDP-150-29 Free PlayPDP-150-30 Media Narratives Spinning the Truth

Unit(s): 3
or
An introduction to the academic community ofBridgewater College to the liberal arts and tothe skills of critical thinking and reflectivewriting specifically designed for transferstudents. Transfer students will explore theunique challenges of integrating into a liberalarts educational environment and will begin theprocess of documenting their experiences andgrowth in the four dimensions of personaldevelopment intellectual growth and discoverycitizenship and community responsibility ethicaland spiritual growth and emotional maturationandphysical health.general education 2014 master core skills

Unit(s): 3
Introduction to academic expository andargumentative writing with a focus on developingrhetorical skills and practices appropriate to arange of disciplines. Instruction in ethical useof material from sources and academicdocumentation systems. Supplementary writersworkshop required based on placement.General Education 2014 master core skill

Unit(s): 3
BIOL-110 and BIOL-111 and
A precalculus course for students continuing inmathematics. Includes topics in algebrafunctionsand relations and trigonometry.Prerequisites MATH 110 or satisfactoryperformance on placement test

Unit(s): 3
FILA general education writing intensive

Unit(s): 4

An exploration of how microorganisms interactwiththeir environment and the implications of theseinteractions for humans. Specific topics willinclude antibiotic resistance biodegradationbiodiversity biofuels bioremediation extremeenvironments geochemical cycles methods forsampling culture and analysis of environmentalmicroorganisms microbiology of air water andsoil environmental pathogens andmicrobiologicaltreatment of sewage and water. Three lectures andone lab per week.Prerequisites BIOL 309 or ENVRCHEM 320Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

Freshwater Resources Emphasis

The freshwater resources emphasis allows students majoring in environmental science or biology to focus on availability, ecology and protection of water resources. While water is a basic resource for all life, many human activities degrade water quality requiring specialists who are able to help maintain water quality. This emphasis allows students to delve into the issues of water quality from a biological, chemical and geological perspective.

The chemistry and quantitative aspects ofenvironmentally important cycles (C N O P S)in the context of the atmosphere hydrosphere andlithosphere. Major environmental issues arediscussed such as acid rain sewage treatmentozone destruction anthropogenic climate changeair pollution and eutrophication. Laboratoriesinvolve sampling quantitative detection and dataanalysis. Three hours of lecture and onefour-hour lab per week. Prerequisites CHEM-162

Unit(s): 4

ENVR/
Introduction to aquatic ecosystems (lakesponds streams and wetlands). Students learnabout the major chemical and physical processesthat determine the function of freshwatersystems. Students are introduced to the majorgroups of aquatic organisms (algae vascularplants invertebrates fish and amphibians).Strongemphasis on the impacts that humans have onfreshwater systems. The lab introduces thebasic skills necessary for the study andmanagement of fresh waters.Prerequisites BIOLENVR 301 or BIOL 350 orpermission of instructorAlternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4


Choose three:

ENVR/
Survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasison freshwater fish of North America). Topicsinclude taxonomy anatomy physiology behaviorand ecology. Special emphasis onmanagement of fish populations and diversityin the face of environmental threats includingpollution habitat alteration overharvest andinvasive species. Lab includes basic ecologyand behavior but focuses heavily on commonfisheries techniques.Prerequisites BIOLENVR 301 or BIOL 350 orpermission of instructorAlternate years offered 2016-2017

Unit(s): 4

ENVR/
Exploration of how microorganisms interact withtheir environment and the implications of theseinteractions for humans. Specific topicsinclude antibiotic resistance biodegradationbiodiversity biofuels bioremediation extremeenvironments geochemical cycles methods forsampling culture and analysis of environmentalmicroorganisms microbiology of air water andsoil environmental pathogens andmicrobiologicaltreatment of sewage and water. Three lectures andone lab per week.Prerequisites BIOL 309 or ENVRCHEM 320Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

ENVR/
In this course students will learn aboutstormwater management practices and theireffectiveness as well as regulatory efforts. Inaddition rural and agricultural practices thatimpact water quality will be addressed.Presentations and field assignments will be partof the course so students see how local workaffects watershed quality. Students will learnmanagement techniques specific to urban and ruralenvironments as well as the economic politicaland sociological implications of these solutions.Prerequisites
Introduces basic biological conceptsand applies them to help students understand thecauses and solutions of environmental problems.Addresses a wide variety of environmental issuesincluding biodiversity loss the effects ofpollution on organisms and ecosystems and globalclimate change. Special emphasis given to helpstudents understand how scientific knowledge isdeveloped and scientific information can befound interpreted and applied by society. Threelectures and one laboratory per week.Corequisite MATH 118 or MATH 110FILA general education natural and physicalsciences

Unit(s): 4
or BIOL-111

Unit(s): 3

This course is an introduction to GeographicInformation Systems (GIS). GIS is a computerizedsystem that allows users to collect storevisualize and analyze locationalgeospatial data.Students learn basic cartographic concepts andthe use of common GIS software programs. Thecourse focuses on environmental and biologicalapplications of GIS while the technology also hasmany applications in earth sciences urbanplanning business etc.Prerequisites
A precalculus course for students continuing inmathematics. Includes topics in algebrafunctionsand relations and trigonometry.Prerequisites MATH 110 or satisfactoryperformance on placement test

Unit(s): 3


Unit(s): 4

This course is a study of the environment on theEarths surface the boundary between the solidand liquid and interactions between rock andwater. This will include weathering and theformation of soil and the flow of water at thesurface and below ground level. Lab activitieswill include sampling and analysis of soilsurface water and groundwater.Prerequisites ENVR-301

Unit(s): 3

Wildlife Biology Emphasis

The Wildlife Biology emphasis allows students wanting the breadth of the biology or environmental science major to also focus in areas of wildlife biology and management. In this program, students will take 11–17 additional credits on top of their major to specialize in wildlife. The program offers directed study in wildlife management and techniques, botany, zoology, and policy and ethics. This program along with the biology or environmental science major and the general education requirements will support students wishing to pursue careers with state and federal agencies, graduate degree programs in wildlife biology, as well as those who wish to pursue Wildlife Biologist Certification through the Wildlife Society.

Consists of 23 credits. The requirements are as follows:

Wildlife Management and Techniques
Take one course:
BIOL/

Explores the ecology and management of wildlifewith an emphasis on North American mammals andbirds. Topics include habitat quality forestrynutrition disease population dynamics anddiversity. Also explores human dimensions in theNorth American stakeholder model of wildlifemanagement. Lab emphasizes field techniques.Three lectures and one lab per week.Prerequisites PDP 150 or PDP 350 ENG 110 andBIOL 111 or permission of instructorAlternate years offered 2016-2017Writing Intensive

Unit(s): 4

BIOL/
This primarily field-based course will provide abroad overview of techniques and conceptsinvolvedin field biology (especially ecology) includingbasic scientific method and a variety of samplingtechniques. Course content also has a strongemphasis on basic natural history as studentslearn about and experience a wide variety oforganisms (e.g. plant fungi insects fishamphibians and mammals) ecosystems (e.g.forests grasslands wetlands ponds andstreams)and ecological interactions. Students will alsodiscuss techniques for interpretingteachingthesebiological concepts to others.Prerequisites BIOL 111 or permission ofinstructor2017 Summer Session I Begins 5-30-17 HybridOnline Course Meets on Campus

Unit(s): 4

BIOL/
Survey of the methods used bythe public and private sectors to manage ourenvironment and natural resources. The primaryemphasis will be on restoration ecology andconservation biology. Other topics that will beaddressed will include environmental engineering(e.g. green chemistry and design of pollutioncontrol devices) economic considerations inconservation (e.g. conservation land easementsand ecotourism) and government regulation. Thelab will provide students with experienceapplyingstandard methods of monitoring biologicalresources. The lab will also provide anopportunity for students to hear talks fromenvironmental experts and to travel to localsites where management activities are occurring.Prerequisite BIOL 111 or permission of theinstructorAlternate years offered 2016-2017

Unit(s): 4

Molecules, Anatomy and Physiology
Take one course:

Introduction to both classical Mendelianinheritance and molecular genetics with one labper week.Prerequisites BIOL 111 or permission ofinstructor CHEM 161 recommendedBIOL-216 may not be substituted for BIOL-309

Unit(s): 4

Introduction to animal physiology - how animalsfunction at cellular systems and organismallevels. Knowledge that is acquired in this courseserves as an excellent foundation for futurepostgraduate or professional studies in animalhealth & management. Course structure activelearning lectures and applied learning labs.Development of scientific thinking and writingare significant components of the course.Prerequisites
Taught in the style of a seminar a small groupof students learn thinking skills throughdiscussion debate peer review andbrainstorming. Context varies from section tosection. Incoming students rank topic preferencesand then are assigned to a section. Focusesspecifically on two key areas of personaldevelopment (1) intellectual growth isstimulated through systematic criticalquestioning and (2) a sense of communityinvolvement and responsibility is developedthrough classroom group work collaborativelearning and a class community engagementproject. The course also contains success skillexercises and college orientation informationincluding an introduction to the portfolioprogram.General education master core skills2017 Fall Semester TopicsPDP-150-01 A Mans Man and a Womans WomanPDP-150-02 The Power of Physical Activity andSportPDP-150-03 Human Behavior in a Computational AgePDP-150-04 Strange IdeasPDP-150-05 After the ScourgePDP-150-06 Swimming in a sea of misinformationPDP-150-07 A Mans Man and a Womans WomanPDP-150-08 Creativity in the Arts SciencesBusiness Sports... in LifePDP-150-09 How to Rock the BoatPDP-150-10 Superhero NarrativesPDP-150-11 Dog is My Co-PilotPDP-150-12 Leadership and the Art of DecisionPDP-150-13 Free PlayPDP-150-14 Knowledge The Only FrontierPDP-150-15 Music Sweet Music PDP-150-16 The Fine Line between Glory & GuiltPDP-150-17 The Souls of Black Folk CriticalReadings By and About African Americans in the20th and 21st CenturiesPDP-150-18 Whos Sorry Now Thinking ThroughApologies Made on the Public StagePDP-150-19 Chickens Chickens ChickensPDP-150-20 The Narnian The Life and Imaginationof C.S. LewisPDP-150-21 Liberal Arts of the Living DeadPDP-150-22 Liberal Arts of the Living DeadPDP-150-23 Human Behavior in a Computational AgePDP-150-24 Latino USAPDP-150-25 Tweet Friend Pin Social Media &You as a 21st Century CitizenPDP-150-26 The Power of Physical Activity andSportPDP-150-29 Free PlayPDP-150-30 Media Narratives Spinning the Truth

Unit(s): 3
or
An introduction to the academic community ofBridgewater College to the liberal arts and tothe skills of critical thinking and reflectivewriting specifically designed for transferstudents. Transfer students will explore theunique challenges of integrating into a liberalarts educational environment and will begin theprocess of documenting their experiences andgrowth in the four dimensions of personaldevelopment intellectual growth and discoverycitizenship and community responsibility ethicaland spiritual growth and emotional maturationandphysical health.general education 2014 master core skills

Unit(s): 3
Introduction to academic expository andargumentative writing with a focus on developingrhetorical skills and practices appropriate to arange of disciplines. Instruction in ethical useof material from sources and academicdocumentation systems. Supplementary writersworkshop required based on placement.General Education 2014 master core skill

Unit(s): 3
BIOL-110 and BIOL-111
A precalculus course for students continuing inmathematics. Includes topics in algebrafunctionsand relations and trigonometry.Prerequisites MATH 110 or satisfactoryperformance on placement test

Unit(s): 3
FILA general education writing intensive

Unit(s): 4

The molecular basis of cell structure andfunction. Topics include the chemistryarchitecture and analysis of macromoleculesoverview of thermodynamics and metabolismenzymology genetic processes and controlsrecombinant DNA technology and cell signalingmechanisms. Three lectures and one lab perweek.Prerequisites BIOL 111 and CHEM 161 orpermission of instructorCredit may not be received for both BIOL-216 andBIOL-325

Unit(s): 4

BIOL/
This course will provide a framework for studyinghow animals function in their native environmentsat different stages of their life cycles. Itsscope is animal physiology blended withenvironmental science principles ofphysiological mechanisms are examined from theperspective of physiological adaptation in agiven environmental context including specificadaptations to environmental extremes. Coursestructure active learning lectures and appliedlearning labs. Development of critical scientificthinking and scientific writing are significantcomponents of the course.Prerequisites
Taught in the style of a seminar a small groupof students learn thinking skills throughdiscussion debate peer review andbrainstorming. Context varies from section tosection. Incoming students rank topic preferencesand then are assigned to a section. Focusesspecifically on two key areas of personaldevelopment (1) intellectual growth isstimulated through systematic criticalquestioning and (2) a sense of communityinvolvement and responsibility is developedthrough classroom group work collaborativelearning and a class community engagementproject. The course also contains success skillexercises and college orientation informationincluding an introduction to the portfolioprogram.General education master core skills2017 Fall Semester TopicsPDP-150-01 A Mans Man and a Womans WomanPDP-150-02 The Power of Physical Activity andSportPDP-150-03 Human Behavior in a Computational AgePDP-150-04 Strange IdeasPDP-150-05 After the ScourgePDP-150-06 Swimming in a sea of misinformationPDP-150-07 A Mans Man and a Womans WomanPDP-150-08 Creativity in the Arts SciencesBusiness Sports... in LifePDP-150-09 How to Rock the BoatPDP-150-10 Superhero NarrativesPDP-150-11 Dog is My Co-PilotPDP-150-12 Leadership and the Art of DecisionPDP-150-13 Free PlayPDP-150-14 Knowledge The Only FrontierPDP-150-15 Music Sweet Music PDP-150-16 The Fine Line between Glory & GuiltPDP-150-17 The Souls of Black Folk CriticalReadings By and About African Americans in the20th and 21st CenturiesPDP-150-18 Whos Sorry Now Thinking ThroughApologies Made on the Public StagePDP-150-19 Chickens Chickens ChickensPDP-150-20 The Narnian The Life and Imaginationof C.S. LewisPDP-150-21 Liberal Arts of the Living DeadPDP-150-22 Liberal Arts of the Living DeadPDP-150-23 Human Behavior in a Computational AgePDP-150-24 Latino USAPDP-150-25 Tweet Friend Pin Social Media &You as a 21st Century CitizenPDP-150-26 The Power of Physical Activity andSportPDP-150-29 Free PlayPDP-150-30 Media Narratives Spinning the Truth

Unit(s): 3
or
An introduction to the academic community ofBridgewater College to the liberal arts and tothe skills of critical thinking and reflectivewriting specifically designed for transferstudents. Transfer students will explore theunique challenges of integrating into a liberalarts educational environment and will begin theprocess of documenting their experiences andgrowth in the four dimensions of personaldevelopment intellectual growth and discoverycitizenship and community responsibility ethicaland spiritual growth and emotional maturationandphysical health.general education 2014 master core skills

Unit(s): 3
ENG-110BIOL-110 and BIOL-111 and
A precalculus course for students continuing inmathematics. Includes topics in algebrafunctionsand relations and trigonometry.Prerequisites MATH 110 or satisfactoryperformance on placement test

Unit(s): 3
FILA general education writing intensive

Unit(s): 4

Comparative study of the major organ systems invertebrate animals. Lectures examine topics suchas the origin and adaptive evolution ofvertebrate anatomy and the systematicrelationships between vertebrate groups. The labprovides a detailed examination of vertebrateanatomy. Three lectures and one lab per week.Prerequisite BIOL 111Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

Botany
Take one course:

Survey of the vascular flora of the ShenandoahValley and surrounding mountain areas.Field-based course that introduces students tothe identification of plants in the field oftheirecology. Plant collection and specimenpreservation are also included.Prerequisites BIOL 1112017 Summer Session I Begins 5-30-17 CANCELED

Unit(s): 4

A comprehensive survey of the plant kingdom thatwill include topics ranging from plant anatomyphysiology diversity and ecology. Studentsinterested in ecology forestry and wildlifebiology will find this course particularlyuseful. Three lectures and one lab per week.Prerequisite BIOL 111Alternate years offered 2016-2017

Unit(s): 4

Broad survey of the diversity andclassification of vascular plants. Students willlearn to recognize common and important plantfamilies as well as learn to identify local taxa.Traditional and modern methods of taxonomy andsystematics are presented.Prerequisite BIOL 111 BIOL 430 recommendedAlternate years offered 2016-2017

Unit(s): 4

Zoology/Organisms
Take two courses:

Explores the anatomy physiology ecology andbehaviors that have produced an extraordinarybiodiversity of bird species. The major groups ofmodern birds are introduced and their originand ecology are examined. Students learnto recognize local species in the field andexamine them in the lab using the ornithologycollections. Suitable for bothbiology majors and non-majors.Prerequisites BIOL 100 or 110Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

An introduction to the study of amphibians andreptiles. Lectures will focus on the origin andevolution of amphibians and reptiles and ontheir biology ecology and conservation. Lab willemphasize taxonomy anatomy speciesidentification and common field techniques usedto study these groups.Prerequisite BIOL 111Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures willfocus on phylogenetics the origin and evolutionof mammals and their biology ecology andconservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomyspecies identification and common fieldtechniques used to study mammals.Prerequisite BIOL 111Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

BIOL/
A survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasison freshwater fish of North America). Topics willinclude taxonomy anatomy physiology behaviorand ecology. There will be special emphasis onmanagement of fish populations and diversityin the face of environmental threats includingpollution habitat alteration overharvest andinvasive species. Lab will include basic ecologyand behavior but will focus heavily on commonfisheries techniques.Prerequisite ENVRBIOL 301 or BIOL 350 orpermission of the instructorAlternate years offered 2016-2017

Unit(s): 4

Introduction to the theoreticalframework and the methodology of animal behaviorresearch. Students examine the causationdevelopment current function and evolutionaryhistory of behavior of invertebrates andvertebrates. Integrates concepts and principlesfrom multipledisciplines to understand behaviors such asforaging and predation mating systemscommunication parental care social hierarchiesand territoriality. Students also review thehistory of the field of animal behavior and thecontributions that animal behavior research canmake to applied disciplines such as environmentalconservation biomedical research and humanpsychology.Prerequisites Any one of the following BIOL311 314 or 350 PSY 210 or permission of theinstructorAlternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 4

Policy/Ethics
Take one course:

Confronts a number of modernscientific and ethical problems includingabortion genetic testing genetically modifiedplants and animals stem cells gene therapyresearch on humans and physician-assistedsuicide. Biology and biotechnology often confoundour notions of right and wrong and what ethicalbehavior is.Prerequisites PDP 150 or PDP 350 and ENG 110General Education philosophy or religion andEthical Reasoning Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 3

Pressing issues confronting professionals in atechnological era. Utilizing the insights ofphilosophical and religious ethics the courseexamines the responsibilities of the professionalperson in business medicine law education theministry and other fields. Problems consideredinclude confidentiality accountabilitywhistleblowing governmental regulation andethical codes.Prerequisites PDP 150 or PDP 350 ENG 110 andjunior or senior standingGeneral Education philosophy or religionEthical Reasoning Course

Unit(s): 3

Examines the historical development ofenvironmental ethics in the U.S. major ethicalapproaches to contemporary environmental issuesand the application of those theories toparticular topics such as ecojusticebiodiversity and global warming. Readings willbe drawn from a wide range of sources fromancient scripture to current news reports.Prerequisites PDP 150 or PDP 350 ENG 110 andone of the following courses BIOL 100 BIOL-101BIOL-110 CHEM-102 or CHEM-161General Education philosophy or religionEthical Reasoning & Writing Intensive

Unit(s): 3

This course will explore the ethical implicationsof wildlife management research and stewardshipby applying ethical frameworks to issuessurrounding wildlife. Possible topics includereintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone andsubsequent delisting predator controlsupplemental feeding loggingwildlife conflictshunting culture etc.Prerequisites PDP 150 or PDP 350 ENG 110 andBIOL 100 or 110Ethical Reasoning

Unit(s): 3

This course will provide an overview of federaland state laws that are aimed at the conservationof natural resources andor protection ofenvironmental quality. Major laws that will becovered include the National EnvironmentalProtection Act Clean Air Act Clean Water Actthe Endangered Species Act and others. Speakersfrom natural resourceenvironmental agencies suchas the Va. Department of Environmental QualityVa. Department of Game and Inland Fisheries andU.S. Forest Service will provide practicalinsights into the application and implementationof environmental policy.Prerequisites BIOL 100 101 or 110Alternate years offered 2017-2018

Unit(s): 3

Activities and Clubs

Internships and Research Opportunities

You can participate in environmentally-related internships in a variety of settings, including:

  • Local industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants
  • Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
  • Harrisonburg/Rockingham Regional Water and Sewer Authority
  • District offices of the U.S. Forest Service
  • Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries
  • Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge
  • Shenandoah National Park
  • Regional environmental consulting companies

The Smithsonian-Mason Semester for Conservation Studies

Bridgewater College is a member institution of the Smithsonian-Mason Semester, run by George Mason University out of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) in Front Royal, Va. As a participant, you live on the SCBI campus (a world-class conservation research facility) for a semester and learn about the theory and application of conservation biology (including the social, political and economic dimensions). You can enroll in one of two 16 credit hour programs: Ecology for Effective Conservation Practices or Applied Conservation Strategies (for any student interested in conservation).

If you are interested in attending, visit the program’s website for more information and contact the This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or the This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Both programs are appropriate for juniors and seniors. There are no specific prerequisite classes for the Applied Conservation Strategies. That program is open to all majors. The Ecology for Effective Conservation Practices semester has Ecology (BIOL-350) as a prerequisite.

Careers and Graduate Schools

What can you do with your environmental science degree?

You might enter graduate school in such areas as:

  • Applied Ecology
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Law
  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health
  • Toxicology

Or pursue a career in:

  • Conservation
  • Earth Science
  • Environmental Quality and Consulting
  • Government
  • Teaching
  • Water and Wastewater Technology

Learn more about career paths, employment and advancement in the field of environmental science from the National Association of Environmental Professionals.

The Smithsonian-Mason Semester for Conservation Studies

Bridgewater College is a member institution of the Smithsonian-Mason Semester which is run by George Mason University out of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) in Front Royal, Va. In this program, students live on the SCBI campus (a world-class conservation research facility) and learn about the theory and application of conservation biology (including the social, political and economic dimensions). Students participate in one of two 16 credit hour programs: Ecology for Effective Conservation Practices or Applied Conservation Strategies (for any student interested in conservation). Interested students should visit the program’s website (smconservation.gmu.edu/programs/undergraduate) and contact the biology department or the coordinator of international education. Both programs are appropriate for juniors and seniors. There are no specific prerequisite classes for the Applied Conservation Strategies. That program is open to all majors. The Ecology for Effective Conservation Practices semester has Ecology (BIOL-350) as a prerequisite.

Students are charged Bridgewater’s standard tuition, fees, room and meals for the consortium semester and institutional financial aid from BC is limited to $7,000 for the semester.

Visit the Department Homepage

Questions? Contact us!

Dr. Robyn Puffenbarger, Department Chair
540-828-5713
rpuffenb@bridgewater.edu